University of Colorado at Boulder astronomers will share current scientific knowledge and discuss the lore of the heavens in summer star talks in Fiske Planetarium. The live presentations, suitable for adults and children over age 8, will feature talks by CU-Boulder astronomers who will provide illustrations using the star projector and other equipment in the star theater. Each presentation will include time for questions from the audience. Admission will be charged. If the weather permits, the 16-inch and 18-inch telescopes in nearby Sommers-Bausch Observatory will be available for viewing after each program. On Friday, June 13, at 8 p.m. Associate Professor John Bally will discuss the big-bang theory of the origin of the universe and its early evolution. He will travel back to the beginning of time using the latest images obtained from Earth and space. On Friday, July 11, astronomer Katy Garmany, director of Fiske Planetarium and Sommers-Bausch Observatory, will speak on Earth and Sky: Before the Telescope. She will show, in the 8 p.m. talk, what our forebears learned from the night sky and will identify the constellations as people have done for centuries. Garmany will discuss visible planets with an emphasis on Mars, light pollution, celestial navigation, calendars, sundials and eclipses. Associate Professor Andrew Hamilton will speak on Black Holes and Relativity on Friday, Aug. 1, at 8 p.m. The audience will see demonstrations of what it is like to travel at nearly the speed of light and will learn about such terms as time dilation, Lorentz contraction beaming and redshift. Hamilton will discuss the fundamentals of relativity and give the audience a simulated fall into a black hole. Fiske Planetarium is located on the corner of Regent Drive and Kittredge Loop Road on the CU-Boulder campus. Sommers-Bausch Observatory is 100 feet east of the planetarium. Visitor parking is free after 5 p.m. in lot 306 on the south side of Regent Drive or in lot 330 on the north side. Admission is $3.50 for adults and $2 for seniors and children. For information about all programs at Fiske Planetarium call (303) 492-5001 for a recorded announcement or (303) 492-5002 to speak to the staff. Published: June 4, 1997 Share Share via TwitterShare via FacebookShare via LinkedInShare via E-mail
Four University of Colorado Boulder faculty and staff have received Fulbright Scholar grants to pursue research, teaching and training abroad during the 2014-15 academic year.The recipients and their destination countries are: Larry Bell, executive director of CU-Boulder’s Office of International Education, India; Adam Levy, research associate at the Institute of Behavioral Science, Moldova; Richard Regueiro, associate professor of civil, environmental and architectural engineering, United Kingdom; and Lisa Severy, director of Career Services and assistant vice chancellor of student affairs, France.Levy is teaching a number of graduate-level courses at Moldova State University and the State Institute for International Relations in the city of Chisinau. One of the classes takes students into the field to visit border checkpoints and migrant processing and detention centers. The course brings in guest lecturers including migrant managers and nongovernmental organization partners. One theme studied in Levy’s courses is the effects of border control efforts in the “iconic inter-zone” — the contact or sometimes conflict zone — between great powers, he said. “The very small country of Moldova is a learning laboratory for border and migration management,” said Levy, who’s been in the country since Sept. 1. An estimated one-third of working-age citizens in Moldova labor abroad and send home about 40 percent of the country’s gross domestic product, making it a model for migrant management issues.With his Fulbright award, Regueiro is conducting research at the University of Oxford on computational mechanics of the eye. The work involves creating computer models and conducting simulations to study how a prosthetic inserted into the inner lens of the eye during cataract surgery, for example, works mechanically with the rest of the eye and restores vision. The research also could extend to treatment of trauma from foreign bodies penetrating the eye.One thing Regueiro is struck by at Oxford, where he’s been since late August, is its ancient and diverse academic environment, he said.“A fascinating characteristic of the University of Oxford, which is said to have been founded in the 1200s, is its age,” said Regueiro. “Also, college admissions in certain disciplines are limited and students are provided small-group tutorials with a faculty member multiple times per week. There are 38 colleges at Oxford whose atmosphere leads inevitably to interdisciplinary research ideas spawned over lunch, coffee or tea.”Severy received a Fulbright grant for a two-week seminar this month in Paris and Lyon, France, designed to familiarize U.S. higher education administrators with France’s higher education and research system. The program will include campus visits, meetings and briefings with government officials and French international education professionals, and networking and cultural activities.Bell also received a seminar grant and was in India in March to visit with the Indian Ministry of Education and other Indian government officials, U.S. consular officials and a variety of Indian higher education institutions. Other participants in the seminar included provosts, vice chancellors and directors of international offices from U.S. colleges and universities.The Fulbright program, which is sponsored by the U.S. State Department and chooses participants based on academic merit and leadership potential, operates in more than 155 countries. Roughly 800 U.S. scholars and 800 international visiting scholars receive awards each year.Five CU-Boulder students were offered Fulbright Student grants this past spring to pursue teaching, research and graduate studies abroad during the 2014-15 academic year. For more information about the winning students visit http://www.colorado.edu/news/releases/2014/05/01/five-cu-boulder-students-offered-fulbright-awards-2014-15.For more information on the Fulbright Scholar Program visit http://www.cies.org/us_scholars/. For more information on international programs at CU-Boulder visit http://www.colorado.edu/OIE/.Contact: Elizabeth Lock, CU-Boulder media relations, [email protected] Published: Oct. 3, 2014 Share Share via TwitterShare via FacebookShare via LinkedInShare via E-mail
AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMoreTwo determined little girls are rallying thousands of people to sign a petition demanding that Burger King and McDonald’s stop giving away free plastic toys – and they have almost met their goal of half a million signatures.With the help of their mother, 9-year-old Ella and 7-year-old Caitlin Wood started an online Change.org petition in order to persuade the fast food giants to do away with the wasteful toys that come with Happy Meals and Junior Meals.Since launching the petition, the youngsters have garnered over 350,000 signatures of their 500,000 goal – and the call to action has already accumulated further support from adults and children alike. “We’ve been learning all about the environment at school and the problem of plastic. It made us very sad to see how plastic harms wildlife and pollutes the ocean, and we want to change this,” reads the petition. “That’s why we want Burger King and McDonald’s to think of the environment and stop giving plastic toys with their kids meals.CHECK OUT: Another Victory Against Plastic – These Water Brands Will Soon Be Packaged in Aluminum Cans“We like to go to eat at Burger King and McDonald’s, but children only play with the plastic toys they give us for a few minutes before they get thrown away and harm animals and pollute the sea. We want anything they give us to be sustainable so we can protect the planet for us and for future generations,” they continued.In addition to the girls making a compelling argument, the amount of signatures on the petition almost doubled after reporters with the BBC 1’s “War on Plastic” followed the determined young activists to the McDonald’s headquarters in order to hand-deliver the petition.Since the little girls’ story started being picked up by international news outlets, Burger King and McDonald’s have both emailed statements to CNBC detailing their plans for making their free toys more sustainable.(WATCH the powerful BBC coverage below) – Photo by BBC1Be Sure And Share The Inspiring Story With Your Friends On Social Media…AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMore
Every student with perfect attendance will receive a coupon for a free ice cream cone from Dairy Queen, at the end of each 9 weeks. Elk ValleyJellico High SchoolStudents with perfect attendance.LaFollette Middle Caryville ElementaryCES is giving away prizes(small treats or trinkets) every Friday the month of September for students that have perfect attendance that week. Then at the end of September, we are having a drawing for 2-3 larger prizes for any student that perfect attendance for the month of September!!! Every morning in assembly we are promoting attendance and rallying excitement for perfect attendance prizes!!!!Share this:FacebookTwitter
Upd. at 15:01 Jose MourinhoLost 5-0 in Barcelona on November 29, 2010 Carlo AncelottiLost 2-1 in Barcelona on October 26, 2013 No Real Madrid manager has won on their ‘Clasico debut’ for almost 10 years. Zinedine Zidane is looking to buck the trend, following in the footsteps of Bernd Schuster, who managed to do it in 2007. Here are the previous five attempts by Madrid managers to win their first Clasico: Sport EN Manuel PellegriniLost 1-0 in Barcelona on November 29, 2009 CEST Juande RamosLost 2-0 in Barcelona on December 13, 2008 Rafa BenitezLost 4-0 in Madrid on November 21, 2015 02/04/2016
They were dangerous on almost every shift. While Henrik was held pointless (for the fourth straight game), the line generated a ton of chances and when they play like this, it’s only a matter of time before the puck starts going in the net with more frequency.While it might appear the twins need some rest, they will unfortunately not get as much as the rest of the team as they are both headed to this weekend’s All-Star game in Ottawa. I won’t go into a big diatribe about the All-Star game, but as a Canuck fan, I’d much rather that the players weren’t obligated to attend this useless excuse for a hockey game. CANUCKS’ TOP DEFENSIVE PAIRING STELLARThere’s only one word to describe the play of the Canucks’ top defensive pair of Dan Hamhuis and Kevin Bieksa tonight – spectacular. While it wasn’t the flashiest game you’ll see NHL players put on the ice, these two were rock solid all night long, had great speed and quickness, and were a dominant force throughout the game. Both players wound up plus-2, and Hamhuis got a key assist on the game’s first goal. This is an important development for the Canucks, as the pair had been struggling somewhat in recent games.Every time it seemed like the talented young Oiler forwards were about to generate something, Hamhuis and Bieksa just seemed to make a good, smart play. Whether it was outracing their opponent to the puck, putting their stick in the right passing lane, or getting the right angle on the puck carrier coming over the blue line, it was just perfect. While the game didn’t feature much hitting, they played a good physical game in their own zone and were often had good body position on the Oilers. They also excelled at moving the puck tonight, clearing the zone with relative impunity and getting the forwards the puck, who were generally able to do something with it tonight (case in point was the Canucks’ second goal, the rush started on a stellar outlet pass from Hamhuis to Kesler).When these guys are on their game, the Canucks are difficult to beat. Hopefully we’ll see this kind of effort on more consistent basis moving forward. DAVID BOOTH CONTINUES TO IMPRESSTonight was Booth’s fourth game since returning from his knee injury, and he put another great effort on the ice. Since his return, the second line has been great, and again tonight they caused a lot of problems for the Oilers. His speed is very good and while he’s not an excessively physical player, his size matches up well with other players and he’s able to use his body position to shield the puck and get it to his linemates in the offensive zone.At first blush, his goal tonight was a dirty, goal-mouth scramble type of goal. However, I think it was much more than that – he was able to outmuscle Hall near the Oiler net (as he should be able to do), but he actually showed a lot of skill as he used his skate to touch the puck back to his stick before sweeping it in the net, all while being knocked to the ice by Hall. Make no mistake, this was a very skilled goal scored by a skilled player. Seeing him and Kesler forming this kind of chemistry in limited time makes me excited to see what they will be able to do with another 20 games together under their belts. PARTING SHOTSQuick Comments: This game’s scoreline was much closer than it should have been and was not indicative of the run of the play. The Canucks were the better team for most of the night, certain sections of the second period notwithstanding, and they generated far more quality scoring chances. The four goalposts helped Edmonton’s cause, but that said, hockey can just be like that. Next time, those pucks will hopefully go in. On the flip side, I have never seen Jordan Eberle this invisible in any game, ever. He was on a line with Sam Gagner (who was noticeable and played well, strangely enough). The Oilers’ line of Horcoff-Hall-Hemsky had a very good night. I haven’t seen Hemsky play this well in ages – he was back to his old self, it seemed, the puck glued to his stick and him able to make some slick passes. That said – Hall was by far Edmonton’s best player. All over the ice, fast, skilled, good size – he’s going to be a beast in the NHL for many years. While they didn’t appear on the scoresheet, the third line had a strong outing as well for Vancouver. Hodgson just seems to get better and better, and Hansen was responsible for one of the crossbars. Mason Raymond hasn’t scored much at all, lately, but was all over the ice tonight and as always played well defensively. Credit the Oilers for sticking with it – knowing the score was close, they never quit and were twice able to come back and tie the game. Luongo made a couple of very good saves in the shootout. He also made a great save in overtime on Gagner. He wasn’t called upon to make a ton of phenomenal saves tonight, but he played well at the end of the game. He could not be blamed for either Edmonton goal.Broadcast Observation of the Day: In general, I prefer the Sportsnet games to our other options. That said, I’m not the biggest fan of Shorthouse. Instead of calling the game, he often attempts to get Garrett involved in conversations about silly things like food, or jokingly makes fun of him and his NHL career. It’s all in good fun, but for the TV viewer, it’s not that funny nor interesting. I’d much rather have some proper analysis done of the game.Two nice touches tonight: in his first intermission interview, Hamhuis told the residents of Burns Lake that the team’s thoughts were with them as they deal with the devastating fire in that small community’s lifeblood, its sawmill. Hamhuis was raised in nearby Smithers. Also, GM Mike Gillis was with Dan Murphy in both intermissions, and the first segment was dedicated to the Canucks’ support of the re-launch of mental illness website, www.mindcheck.ca. The site is dedicated to awareness of mental health issues and is meant to provide resources for youth and young adults in need. The Canucks are behind this initiative primarily in memory of and tribute to Rick Rypien.Looking ahead: The Canucks will take six days off before returning next Tuesday night to play the Chicago Blackhawks. Stay tuned to www.fightingforstanley.ca for mid-season reviews of all the Canadian-based NHL teams over the All-Star break, including an analysis of the Canucks, their season to date, their prospects in the playoffs, and what their trade deadline needs, if any, are. Sami Salo returned to the lineup for the Canucks after missing the last seven game with a concussion. He wasn’t that noticeable, however, you did notice the lack of problems with the Canucks’ D as Ballard and Rome could play third-pairing minutes. The game was a no-hitter, it seemed like both teams wanted to get to the break without any physical confrontation. There were only three penalties called, all for hooking or interference. Leigh Ramsden lives in Vancouver and is an avid Canucks fan, having been a partial season ticket holder for over 10 years. He’s old enough to have witnessed all three Stanley Cup losses, as such, his prime goal is to remove those scars by seeing a Cup brought to Vancouver. Leigh is Fighting For Stanley’s (www.fightingforstanley.ca/vancouver) west coast correspondent, and will also blog after all Canuck games for The Nelson Daily.The Vancouver Canucks concluded their pre-All-Star break schedule on Tuesday night at Rogers Arena, defeating the Edmonton Oilers 3-2 by way of a shootout.The Canucks had a tremendous first period, as they came at the Oilers in waves and spent entire shifts possessing the puck in the Oilers’ zone. They were able to break through on a beautiful goal by Daniel Sedin, his line having cycled the puck in Edmonton’s goal for approximately 90 seconds. Inexplicably, the Oilers actually outshot the Canucks in the first period, but Vancouver had the lion’s share of the chances.This trend continued in the second period, but Edmonton played much better in what has been the Canucks’ worst period on a night to night basis. Shawn Horcoff scored on a tremendous feed from young Oiler Taylor Hall, after a defensive breakdown in the Canucks’ end while the bottom defensive pairing and the fourth line were on the ice. While Edmonton had a much better period, the Canucks hit a post late in the second (having hit one in the first as well) and this goal might have been the back breaker for the Oilers, who had played the previous night in Edmonton.The Canucks came out determined in the third to end the game favourably. Buoyed by strong play from the top two lines, the Canucks returning to their swashbuckling ways, trading chances with Edmonton and for the most part, getting the better of the play. The effort was rewarded on a goal by David Booth, the result of hard work in front of the net after a 3-on-2 where Oiler netminder Devan Dubnyk lost the puck to his side, next to the crease. The Canucks were unfortunate to hit the crossbar twice in the third period as well. The resilient Oilers tied the game up a second time after a Hall deflection on a late power play, sending the game into an extra session.Overtime featured end to end play, and a couple of good saves by each goaltender, but didn’t solve anything. Canuck rookie Cody Hodgson scored the winning goal in the fifth round of the shootout, to deliver the Canucks two points heading into the break.Vancouver is happy the break has now arrived. Their play in the last couple of weeks has been very up and down – they have played their best against the tougher teams (Boston, San Jose, L.A., St. Louis), but have struggled against their weaker opponents (Anaheim, Edmonton, Tampa Bay, Florida). There have been times recently that they just look tired, and the six-day break coming up for all but four of the players should be a good tonic for them both physically and mentally. Now that everyone is again healthy, the team needs to refocus and set their sights on the stretch drive into the playoffs. TWINS RETURN FROM MIA STATUSIn recent outings, the Sedins have not been their normal, dangerous selves, often relatively invisible. In addition, the Canuck power play has been struggling, due at least partially to the Sedins’ lack of production. Tonight, they appeared to be much more “Sedin-like” – they were toying with Edmonton on many shifts, including the one that resulted in the first Canuck goal.
Shatford will start his post-secondary pathway in the Millwright/Machinist Program on Nelson’s Silver King Campus and then plans to enrol in the School of Business Administration for his second year at Selkirk College.“I hope to help the Saints get the BCIHL Championship back,” says Shatford. “I play a high energy, physical game and love to win. I can’t wait to suit up for the Saints this season and next.”Last season, Freed played in the Greater Metro Junior A Hockey League (GMHL) for the Temiscaming Titans where he led his team in scoring with 44 goals and 56 assists in only 35 games.“Rylan is a player that we feel has an exceptional upside, he brings more than 180 games of junior A experience and with that a deep knowledge of what it takes to succeed,” says Heaven. “We expect Rylan to be able to help bolster the Saints offense, while increasing the level of compete within our group.”Freed will be begin his post-secondary in the School of Business Administration on the Castlegar Campus.“The reason I chose Selkirk College was mainly because the college was very welcoming, they were understanding with the program I was interested in taking and were interested in helping me with my future,” says Freed, who plays centre. “On the ice, I look forward to bringing some speed and offense along with a good two-way game because everything starts from your defensive zone.”The Saints made it to the BCIHL championship series this past spring, but were defeated by the Trinity Western University Spartans. Winners of four championships in a row between 2013 and 2016, the team is looking to return the provincial title to the West Kootenay this coming season. The Saints training camp starts in September. The Selkirk College Saints will welcome a pair of proven offensive threats when the British Columbia Intercollegiate Hockey League (BCIHL) season begins in September.With the departure of offensive powerhouse Dallas Calvin, a priority on head coach Brent Heaven’s off-season to-do list is to find players to help fill the gap for the 2018-2019 season. The Saints’ coach will be looking to Nova Scotia native Josh Shatford and Saskatchewan native Rylan Freed to help carry the offensive weight in the upcoming season.“Josh is a highly skilled player with over 250 games of experience between junior A and the major junior level,” says Heaven. “He plays with an edge and has a strong hockey IQ, which helps his offensive flare. We feel that he will be able to step in and contribute at both ends of the ice immediately for the Saints.”Last season, Shatford played in the Sask West Hockey League (SWHL) where he scored 26 goals in 19 games, added 21 assists and compiled 95 penalty minutes.“I chose Selkirk College because I heard great things from guys who have played there,” says Shatford, who also spent time in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL). “Selkirk College has a great and storied hockey program, and can offer me the training I was looking for in an awesome environment.”
Stand Tickets are now sold out. All supporters travelling to the game are encouraged to purchase their tickets in advance, Tickets on sale through the Supervalu and Centra outlets. Tickets will also be on sale outside the stadium from 5pm when the gates open.print WhatsApp Facebook Twitter Email A place in the Connacht Football Championship final is up for grabs this evening. Galway take on old rivals Mayo at McHale Park at 7pm with LIVE Commentary this evening from Ollie Turner & Frank Morris.
print WhatsApp Facebook Twitter Email The CCCC have confirmed the details of the Allianz National Hurling League Quarter Finals. Galway’s Quarter Final with Wexford will be played as a doubleheader with the Allianz National Football League clash of Galway and Roscommon in Pearse Stadium on Saturday next. The Hurling Quarter Final between Galway and Wexford will throw in at 1.30 with the Football throwing in at 3.30. All three Hurling Quarter Finals will be played on Saturday with Waterford and Clare in Walsh Park at 3pm and Tipperary and Dublin in Semple Stadium at 4.30. The Division One A Relegation Play-off between Kilkenny and Cork will be played at Nowlan Park and will throw in at 2pm.
Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Scientists have monitored deforestation for several decades using both on-the-ground and remote methods. Although clear-cut logging continues in earnest across the Amazon, deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon are lower than in the early 2000s. Degradation, on the other hand, remains a growing issue and historically has received less attention than forest loss.Measuring irregular losses in Amazon forest carbon stock is difficult. Selective logging targets valuable hardwood tree species such as ironwood and mahogany and typically removes several trees per hectare. Similarly, understory fires – caused by agricultural development, flammable debris leftover from logging, or careless disposal of cigarettes – may leave canopy foliage intact despite a charred underbelly. Modern-day satellite images cannot penetrate the forest canopy to record potential damage below, and isolated instances of degradation may not be visible at the 30-meter or higher resolution of standard satellite imagery. Surveillance by foot can more clearly identify degraded forests but is unfeasible for areas larger than a few hectares (or acres).In the last few decades, fortunately, a groundbreaking tool has managed to achieve both the fine resolution of ground inventory and the broad coverage of satellite data.LiDAR provides high-resolution, three-dimensional depictions of forestLight Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a method of remote sensing that uses light waves to measure distances to a target (in this case the Earth’s surface and vegetation) from a transmitter. Lasers are fired, typically from an airplane, at up to 150,000 pulses per second and bounce back to a highly acute sensor located near the source of the lasers. The distance to the target is calculated from how long it takes for the lasers to return, and different spectrums of light can be fired in order to survey different materials or structural properties. Combining the calculated distances travelled by individual lasers, each to a different point of the target, with a highly precise GPS system results in an impressively accurate three-dimensional representation of the target structure.An airborne LiDAR system includes a GPS to provide the plane’s position, an Inertial Motion Unit (IMU) to record the aircraft’s altitude, and a laser that scans back and forth across the terrain below. The laser sends many thousands of light pulses toward Earth that bounce back to the scanner. The return time of the pulses represents the distances from the known height of the plane to the surfaces below. The distance data are used to generate information about the shape and structure of the area’s vegetation. Image by University of Texas Coastal Studies Group.The incorporation of LiDAR data allowed the study’s researchers to explore dimensions of forest loss that previously were hard to quantify. “With LiDAR, we are able to characterize the fine-scale changes in carbon density associated with degradation,” Rappaport said. “[Carbon losses from degradation] have been trickier to characterize than carbon losses from deforestation, which are less subtle in nature.”The high-resolution data LiDAR produces enable scientists to assess the variability in canopy height, a metric of forest ecological stability. Rappaport and her co-authors determined that degradation due to fire and logging resulted in persistent changes in forest canopy structure, habitat that is critical to arboreal organisms such as saki monkeys in Peru.LiDAR data’s remarkable precision does come at a cost that is prohibitively high for most research teams. Since the technology was only recently developed, historic LiDAR data are not available, so change over a long time series cannot be observed.Historic satellite data, such as from the Landsat series, come in great use. The Landsat satellites have been operating continuously for 46 years, and the two currently orbiting satellites, 7 and 8, in combination record freely available images of almost the entire globe in an eight-day cycle. Although the images do not have the spatial resolution of LiDAR [each Landsat pixel is 30 meters (98 feet) across], Landsat complements LiDAR with resolution across time.Intact rainforest canopy in the Amazon Image by Rhett A. Butler/MongabayLiDAR and satellite imagery can record forest structure across space and time, but determining a ratio of carbon per tree or hectare requires on-the-ground assessment of stored carbon. The researchers used tree species and size data from ground-based carbon inventories to estimate the amount of carbon the trees sequester. In combination, the three methods can be very powerful for measuring forest carbon stocks.“Our work to combine forest inventory measurements, airborne LiDAR, and Landsat time series serves as a blueprint for the synergistic use of multiple datasets to estimate carbon emissions from forest degradation,“ Rappaport said.Using this multifaceted approach, Rappaport and her colleagues estimated the loss of carbon due to forest degradation and the relative contributions by logging and fire. Their estimates of carbon loss due to fire were about three times higher than such estimates derived from field experiments or forest inventories in previous studies. Additionally, forests that experienced three or more recurrent fire events in 15 years or less were left with an average of 10 percent of the carbon stock found in the original forest stand.The researchers conclude that fire has the potential to release more carbon stocks than either selective logging or clear-cutting. And conditions may only get worse for the Amazon: projections of more frequent and intense droughts suggest hotter, bigger fires.Map of degraded and intact forest stands in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, where researchers from University of Maryland and NASA recorded forest degradation from fire and logging via ground-based, satellite and LiDAR data. Forest appears green, deforested areas appear pink, and circles indicate the center of forest stands with LiDAR coverage (see key for color code; U—undisturbed; L—logged; LB—logged and burned; B—burned). Figure from Rappaport et al. (2018). Quantifying long-term changes in carbon stocks and forest structure from Amazon forest degradation. Environmental Research Letters, 13.Accurate carbon estimates can revise outdated baselinesAlthough high-resolution data from sources such as LiDAR can reveal somber findings, acquiring an accurate depiction of the full amount of carbon lost due to both deforestation and degradation is critical to understanding – and preventing – anthropogenic disturbance of forests.Rappaport recommends that their findings be used to update guidelines for monitoring carbon stocks present within intact and degraded forests, a key requirement for countries seeking performance-based payments from reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs.“By combining the emissions factors published in this study with [forest cover change] data from satellite observations, we will be able to verify the long-term role that Amazon forest degradation plays within regional carbon cycling,” she said. Rappaport added that they could also “establish emissions baselines necessary for supporting the implementation of REDD+.”Additionally, because their high-resolution methods revealed that forest carbon stocks vary by about two orders of magnitude, the authors recommend multiple classes of degraded forest under the REDD+ framework.Such baselines and classifications are critical to determining the readiness of a nation to begin a REDD+ program and to monitoring the amount of carbon stock retained. The United Nations and World Bank fund two of the most prominent REDD+ programs, and partner countries, including every Amazonian nation but Brazil and Venezuela, must regularly monitor and report forest carbon stocks. If the monitoring process does not capture the full amount of carbon lost due to forest degradation, participating nations may be given more credit than is deserved.A refined understanding of the drivers of forest degradation can also refocus preventative efforts. The World Bank and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) quickly deployed fire control projects in the aftermath of the massive El Niño drought across the Amazon in 1998. With the provision of additional mapping of forest damage due to fires, and with organizations such as Brazil’s National Institute of Space Research taking note, widespread preventative initiatives could be revitalized.Although some international policy currently lags behind cutting-edge forest monitoring capabilities, it would not be the first time that remote sensing data has induced policy change.Looking over the Amazon forest canopy at dawn. Image by Brazilian things, CC 4.0“[Brazil]’s advanced satellite-based monitoring system was a central agent in spurring increased law enforcement and responsive action against forest clearing,” Rappaport said. More widespread LiDAR coverage throughout the Amazon is on the horizon, and continued surveillance will likely stir up more attention, and policy change, in response to forest degradation and the serious impact of anthropogenic fires. “Remote sensing is uniquely poised to help drive and enforce policy change to stem deforestation and degradation.”CitationRappaport, D, I., Morton, D. C., Longo, M., Keller, M., Nara dos-Santos, M. (2018). Quantifying long-term changes in carbon stocks and forest structure from Amazon forest degradation. Environmental Research Letters, 13. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aac331FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the editor of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Sue Palminteri Amazon, Amazon Rainforest, Conservation Solutions, data, Forests, LiDAR, Rainforest Conservation, Rainforests, Redd, Remote Sensing, satellite data, Satellite Imagery, Sensors, Technology, Tropical Forests, Wildtech Although deforestation (left) is absolute and uniform, forest degradation (right) tends to be more irregular and patchy. Its effects on the forest interior are often undetectable from satellite imagery. Images by Rhett A. Butler/Mongabay. Forest degradation has historically been overlooked in accounting and monitoring carbon stocks.A recent study combined ground-based inventory, satellite and LiDAR data to record the loss of carbon due to forest degradation in areas exposed to logging, fire damage, or both, in the arc of deforestation of the southeastern Amazon.The study revealed that fire damage causes greater losses than logging, and fire-damaged forests recovered more slowly than logged forests.Accurate depictions of both deforestation and degradation are necessary to establish emissions baselines used to inform programs to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). The shrieking rip of a chainsaw and the muffled roar of fire: both of these sounds are associated with extensive destruction of Amazon rainforest. But is logging or human-caused fire a larger issue for the fate of the Amazon? And when such activities culminate in a partially degraded forest – rather than complete deforestation – is there much cause for alarm?A recent study published in Environmental Research Letters explored these questions. Using a combination of ground-based, satellite and LiDAR data, scientists from the University of Maryland and NASA recorded the loss of carbon due to forest degradation in areas exposed to logging, fire damage, or both, in 20,000 square kilometers (7,722 square miles) of the southeast Amazon’s “arc of deforestation,” a crescent-shaped strip of intensive forest conversion along the southern and eastern edges of the forest.The Amazon arc of deforestation stretches across the southern and eastern edges of the forest and is rapidly expanding into the forest’s core. Data in Global Forest Watch from Hansen et al (2013) and Brazil’s National Institute of Space Research (INPE) PRODES project.The researchers found that degraded forest stands contained an average of 45.1 percent of the amount of carbon stored in intact forest stands. They compared the impacts of fire and logging, the two most prominent drivers of loss of forest carbon stocks. Fires not only resulted in higher loss of stored carbon than logging, but fire-damaged forests also recovered more slowly than logged forests. Forests subjected to fire remained more impacted after 15 years than forests subjected to logging after the same duration, and neither type of forest recovered to pre-disturbance carbon density.“We combined [forest inventory, satellite and LiDAR data] within a modeling framework to predict how losses and recovery rates of carbon stocks/forest structure are driven by differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of human degradation,“ said the study’s lead author Danielle Rappaport, a doctoral candidate at the University of Maryland. “By providing the first comprehensive set of emissions factors for Amazon forest degradation, this work aims to help support the formal integration of degradation within carbon accounting systems, which have generally excluded degradation all together.”Forest degradation discrete, dangerousDegradation, unlike deforestation, is not absolute. Instead of a complete elimination of forest from the land, degradation is a more subtle process through which patches of forest, or even just individual trees, are lost. But the loss is still significant: 50,815 square kilometers (19,620 square miles) of forest in the Brazilian Amazon was degraded between 2000 and 2010, and emissions from degradation in the Amazon may be higher than those from deforestation. Additionally, the decreased structural complexity of degraded forests cannot support as much biodiversity as primary, undamaged forest.