Shaw Vows Full Disclosure of JDIP

first_imgRelatedShaw Vows Full Disclosure of JDIP By DOUGLAS McINTOSH, JIS Reporter RelatedShaw Vows Full Disclosure of JDIP RelatedShaw Vows Full Disclosure of JDIP Shaw Vows Full Disclosure of JDIP Finance & Public ServiceJune 4, 2011 FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail KINGSTON — Finance and Public Service Minister, Hon. Audley Shaw, has pledged to ensure that all details of the Jamaica Development Infrastructure Programme (JDIP) are fully disclosed to the public as the works progress. He said that the Government is committed to ensuring absolute transparency in the execution of the project. “This year, 153 roads are going to be constructed, several major bridges are being constructed, and one of the things that I, as Minister of Finance, am going to ensure, is that all of the information is provided, (and) made available in Parliament…that the technical specifications that attend each project (and) the amount of money… be properly declared to the people of Jamaica,” he stated. Minister Shaw was speaking on Thursday at the official launch of Kia Motors’ 2011/12 model of sport utility vehicles at the company’s Chelsea Avenue showroom in Kingston. He noted that adequate funds are being allocated for each road shortlisted under JDIP “to ensure that proper drainage is in place, (and) proper construction is in place, so that the road will have the ability to be long lasting and to withstand the normal stresses of bad weather that is inevitable in our experience”. JDIP, which started in 2010, is a major five-year US$400 million road rehabilitation and infrastructural development programme being financed through an agreement between the Governments of Jamaica and China. The programme, which is being implemented islandwide by the National Works Agency (NWA), has seen work already commencing in a number of parishes, including, Kingston and St. Andrew, St. Thomas, Manchester, St. Ann, St. James, St. Catherine, St. Mary and Clarendon. Some $100 million has been allocated in the 2011/12 Estimates of Expenditure to fund the programme in its second year. Advertisementslast_img read more

Two Little Girls Have a Petition and Powerful Video for McDonald’s—It May Signal the End of Wasteful Plastic Toys

first_imgAddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMoreTwo determined little girls are rallying thousands of people to sign a petition demanding that Burger King and McDonald’s stop giving away free plastic toys – and they have almost met their goal of half a million signatures.With the help of their mother, 9-year-old Ella and 7-year-old Caitlin Wood started an online petition in order to persuade the fast food giants to do away with the wasteful toys that come with Happy Meals and Junior Meals.Since launching the petition, the youngsters have garnered over 350,000 signatures of their 500,000 goal – and the call to action has already accumulated further support from adults and children alike. “We’ve been learning all about the environment at school and the problem of plastic. It made us very sad to see how plastic harms wildlife and pollutes the ocean, and we want to change this,” reads the petition. “That’s why we want Burger King and McDonald’s to think of the environment and stop giving plastic toys with their kids meals.CHECK OUT: Another Victory Against Plastic – These Water Brands Will Soon Be Packaged in Aluminum Cans“We like to go to eat at Burger King and McDonald’s, but children only play with the plastic toys they give us for a few minutes before they get thrown away and harm animals and pollute the sea. We want anything they give us to be sustainable so we can protect the planet for us and for future generations,” they continued.In addition to the girls making a compelling argument, the amount of signatures on the petition almost doubled after reporters with the BBC 1’s “War on Plastic” followed the determined young activists to the McDonald’s headquarters in order to hand-deliver the petition.Since the little girls’ story started being picked up by international news outlets, Burger King and McDonald’s have both emailed statements to CNBC detailing their plans for making their free toys more sustainable.(WATCH the powerful BBC coverage below) – Photo by BBC1Be Sure And Share The Inspiring Story With Your Friends On Social Media…AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailEmailShare to RedditRedditRedditShare to MoreAddThisMorelast_img read more

Beaumont man indicted for Port Arthur drive-by shooting

first_img One of the women made threatening comments, which were heard over the camera as they left.According to the probable cause affidavit, the three left in a silver or grey SUV that was parked in front of the house. The vehicle went a short distance, turned around and passed back by the residence, with the Ring camera capturing the scene as shots are fired at the house.A few days later the three went to the Port Arthur Police Department and made voluntary statements on the shooting.The man and one of the women maintained their innocence, but the second woman eventually implicated Senegal as the shooter, authorities said. A Beaumont man was indicted for deadly conduct in relation to a Port Arthur drive-by shooting caught on camera.A Jefferson County grand jury indicted DeMarcus Lee Senegal, 36, of Beaumont for the Dec. 9 shooting of a home in the 3000 block of South Park in Port Arthur.The targeted home is located near Tyrrell Elementary School and Iglesia Apostolic Church.The incident began with two women and a man showing up at the home with a disagreement over a phone. Their arrival was captured on the homeowner’’ Ring doorbell camera. No injuries were reported, and Port Arthur police did not specify how many shots were fired or how many struck the home.The deadly conduct charge is a third degree felony.An indictment is not a final conviction of guilt; it is only a ruling by the grand jury that allows the district attorney’s office to proceed with a criminal case.last_img read more

IEEE Releases Report on Wake-Up Radio Technology Aimed at Increasing Battery Life for Wireless Devices

first_img An overview of IEEE 802.11ba Wake-Up Radio Near-and long-term use cases Market forecasts A comparison of IEEE Wake-Up Radio to other technologies A look at potential future developments Click here to learn more. IEEE has released the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio. Wake-Up Radio is a breakthrough technology from the IEEE 802.11ba Standards Task Group that significantly extends the battery life of devices and sensors, particularly those that are part of the Internet of Things (IoT). With the projected growth of IoT devices exceeding 20 billion by 2020, Wake-Up Radio will greatly reduce the need for frequent recharging or replacement of batteries while still maintaining optimum device performance.Energy conservation is a critical requirement for the billions of future networked devices exclusively dependent on battery power with a target operational lifetime in excess of five years. These devices are expected to make up a substantial fraction of the Internet of Things market. IEEE P802.11ba – Wake Up Radio is a key enabling energy conserving technology for the markets they will serve, and this insightful report has been crafted to help stakeholders better understand the potential of the technology and market.From smart homes and smart warehouses, to logistics and transport, to wearable health-monitoring devices and more, achieving low-power, low-latency objectives are essential for organizations designing or using IoT devices. Wake-Up Radio, running on the common standard IEEE 802.11, offers solutions to overcome design challenges, and to meet the unique requirements for low-power and low-latency in a world of ubiquitous IoT device deployments.The IEEE Wake-Up Radio is an add-on to existing IEEE 802.11 radios that substantially improve power-saving performance of IEEE 802, removing the need to compromise between power savings and latency. This makes the technology suitable for a new class of battery-powered devices that will drive innovation and exciting new applications in the market.The IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio provides:last_img read more

Maths teacher Ebanie Bridges is boxing hopeful who poses in lacy lingerie at weigh-ins and fought on with broken ankle

first_img Real or Fake? Shark Attacks Helicopter AN Australian high school maths teacher has started to make a name for herself as a professional boxer after turning pro last year.The glamorous Ebanie Bridges, nicknamed the “Blonde Bomber”, had an impressive amateur career before turning pro in February 2019.Ebanie Bridges has won all four of her professional fights.Credit: Getty Images – GettyHer debut professional bout came against Mahiecka Pareno, which the 33-year-old won with a majority decision.Bridges was tired of getting a “weird reaction” when she told people what she does for work.She told the Daily Mail: “They never believe me because of the way I look.“I take it to school and they kids really love it.“They ask me all the time, when’s your next fight miss? When’s your next fight?”During her fight with Pareno, Bridges broke her ankle but continued to carry on and defeat her opponent.Bridges was a bodybuilder for seven years but decided to switch to boxing, which was a tough transition for her. She told Macarthur Advertiser: “I was happy with my success in bodybuilding and had nothing more to prove.“The transition to boxing was tough on my body, but I persevered and came through.”Ebanie Bridges has caught the eye as a professional boxerBridges’ last victory came against American Crystal HoyThe glamorous boxer, who is also a maths teacher, has just signed a deal with Split-T managementThe Australian has gone on to fight four times during her short professional career so far, winning all four, with her latest win coming over experienced Crystal Hoy in America earlier this month.Her other two wins came against debutant Laura Woods and Kanittha Ninthim.Bridges has recently signed a deal with Split-T management as she looks to boost her profile.Humble Tyson Fury does the school run as WBC champ returns to ‘normal life’ with his five kids after win over Wilder People Slammed By Massive Waves 4 10 INCREDIBLE Space Launch Failures! 8 MOST DANGEROUS RAINS of All Time | TOP 10 INTERESTING Travel Diary // Vietnam 2017center_img Top 5 Best Budget Hotels In Dubai under AED 400 a night. Rebekah Vardy scores an impressive penalty in six-inch heels Source: Boxing – What’s This “Trick” Called? Comment Down Below!!last_img read more

Lottery winner hands out winning tickets at favorite restaurant, Maine) — A Maine man who won the lottery twice in recent months shared his winnings with employees and diners of a local restaurant he patronized nearly daily for more than a decade.Hal, who asked that his last name not be used, won a $2 million jackpot from the Maine lottery in April in a drawing among people who submitted their losing tickets.“I was there in the audience with my son and my daughter,” said Hal, a widowed father of five from central Maine. “I said, ‘Lord if you want me to win this and do any good with it, call my name now,’ and boom, my name was called.’”Hal, 77, a retired truck driver, said he took home $1.4 million after taxes. He used the money to help his children, and he kept playing the lottery.Last month, Hal played the same Pick 3 game he has played for years, but as a new millionaire, he bought 56 of the $5 tickets. He picked the same three numbers for all 56 tickets.Hal’s three numbers were winners and each of his $5 tickets became $420 winning tickets.One Sunday last month, Hal took the winning tickets to Lori’s Cafe in Liberty, Maine, one of his favorite restaurants.“He was sitting at the counter and a young girl was doing dishes. It was only her second day working here,” the cafe’s owner, Lori Mayer, told ABC News. “He said, ‘Have you been busy today?’ and she said, ‘Oh yeah,’ and he whipped out one of the tickets and said, ‘Well, why don’t you have this today.’”Mayer recalled he then called her over and gave her a ticket saying, “Here, this one is for you.”Hal passed out another five or so winning tickets that day and then came back a few days later to give tickets to more employees and longtime patrons, including Mayer’s mother and aunt.“We all were so excited,” said Mayer, who cashed the winning ticket at a local convenience store. “Most of the girls who work here go to college or are single moms.”She continued, “The dishwasher started crying a little and went out to thank him and told him how much it meant to her.”Hal said he chose to give the money out at Lori’s Cafe for two simple reasons.“They’re nice people and they work hard,” he said.He gave away all 56 of the tickets over the course of about two weeks, surprising complete strangers at places like gas stations and grocery stores with the $420 prize.“It’s something I’ve done all the time, maybe not on that scale,” Hal said of his generosity. “Everything that I do is in direct relation to God.”Hal also plans to keep playing the lottery.“I’ll play the lottery until I drop dead and if I hit it again, I’ll go give the money away again,” he said. “I’ll probably end up broke but it wasn’t because I was extravagant.”Copyright © 2017, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.Powered by WPeMatico Relatedlast_img read more

Brazil great Rivaldo admonishes Coutinho’s celebration against Man Utd

first_imgAdvertisement cbkNBA Finals | Brooklyn VsidpWingsuit rodeo📽Sindre Ebyrw( IG: @_aubreyfisher @imraino ) co4azyjWould you ever consider trying this?😱nnCan your students do this? 🌚gfvRoller skating! Powered by Firework Barcelona legend Rivaldo has strongly criticized the gestures towards the fans Philippe Coutinho made as part of his celebration upon scoring against Manchester United earlier this week. The Brazil great advised his compatriot to refrain himself from doing so in the future and urged him to step up on his game. Advertisement Coutinho arrived from Liverpool in January last year for a then reportedly, record fee of €142m. His inconsistencies have weighed down upon him leading him to come under heavy fire from fans. However, the winger scored a brilliant net buster from 25-yards concluding a dominant 3-0 win over Manchester United in the Champions League quarter final on Tuesday, but his celebration has the fans talking about him yet again.The Brazil international celebrated his goal by facing the home fans, putting his fingers in his ears and closing his eyes.Advertisement Brazil and Barcelona legend Rivaldo has come to criticize his compatriot for the gesture saying Coutinho should not have done that.“It was not a good gesture. He scored a great goal, but it’s never good to do something like that to the fans,” Rivaldo told Marca.Advertisement Rivaldo suggested the 26-year old winger let his performances do the talking instead.He said:“The supporters criticize him because they know he has to give more. I don’t know what happened to him during the week, what he read in the newspapers or saw on television, but you have to keep working, think about the next game and score goals.”However, with transfer talks in place, the former Brazil international encouraged Coutinho to stay at Camp Nou despite being not as successful as originally planned.“I would stay. He is a great player who cannot leave without being a Barcelona success because things haven’t gone well.”Barcelona inch closer to lifting another La Liga trophy, and are through to the semi-finals of the Champions League where they face Premier League leaders and previous runner-ups Liverpool.Read also:-Barcelona entice de Ligt to join club, offer bountiful contract till 2024 Advertisementlast_img read more

Top Of The Table Clash In Women’s Super League While Men’s League Sees Big…

first_imgLiffey Celtics lost their first game of the season last Sunday evening thanks to a stunning three-point shooting exhibition from Pyrobel Killester, which saw them win out 109-86 against the Cup champions. This result has made the battle at the top of the table extremely interesting, with Liffey now on one loss and DCU Mercy sitting on their heels with three losses. Liffey have had the better of the sides’ meetings this year, overcoming DCU at home in their first clash in the league, before putting in a clinical performance against them in the National Cup semi-final in Cork. Revenge will certainly be on the cards for Mark Ingle’s DCU charges though, and they will be hoping to defend their home court in style on Sunday afternoon.Elsewhere around the women’s league, the battle for crucial top slots is raging on in earnest. One of the other big clashes of the weekend sees the Cork derby meeting of Fr Mathews and Singleton SuperValu Brunell this Saturday, in what is a repeat of the Cup semi-final showdown in early January. Brunell got the better of that clash, but this weekend’s derby will undoubtedly come down to the wire between these two sides. NUIG Mystics meanwhile face off against Pyrobel Killester in Galway on Saturday and will be hoping to get some vital points on the board. A big battle will also tip off in Kilkenny this weekend as Marble City Hawks welcome Maxol WIT Wildcats while Ambassador UCC Glanmire will be hoping to maintain their spot on the table when they welcome IT Carlow Basketball to Cork on Saturday evening.A big decider in the Men’s Super League will tip off in Tralee this weekend as Garvey’s Tralee Warriors host Pyrobel Killester in a huge clash at the Sports Complex. Tralee have played 12 games to date and have lost just four, to see them on the same loss record as league leaders, Templeogue, while Killester have lost five of their 13 games. The two sides most recently met in the Hula Hoops Cup semi-final in January, with Ciaran Roe delivering a polished 34-point performance for Killester to see them through that tie.Top of the table Templeogue meanwhile will be hoping to banish Demons this weekend when they welcome the Cork side to Oblate Hall. The Dubliners, who have played 14 games so far this season, need to pick up the points from this clash in a bid to stay slightly ahead of the chasing pack, while UCC Demons also need a big performance this weekend in order to stay in the vital top six spot.Elsewhere, UCD Marian will be hoping to keep momentum from last weekend’s win against Templegoue when they host Maree in Dublin on Saturday evening. Maree have proven to be a tough opponent for Marian recently, beating them in Oranmore in their last league meeting. C and S Neptune will welcome Belfast Star to Cork on Saturday, while Moycullen and DCU Saints go head-to-head in Galway.BasketballIreland Fixtures: February 16th and 17thSaturday16th February 2019 BasketballIreland Men’s Super League:   C and S Neptune v Belfast Star, Neptune Stadium, 19:00;UCD Marian v Maree, UCD Sports Centre-Belfield,19:00;Moycullen v DCU Saints, NUIG, 19:30;Garvey’s Tralee Warriors v Pyrobel Killester, TraleeSports Complex, 19:30;Templeogue v UCC Demons, Oblate Hall Inchicore,20:00;     BasketballIreland Women’s Super League:   NUIG Mystics v Pyrobel Killester, BallinfoileCastlegar Neighbourhood Centre-Headford Rd, 16:30;Fr Mathews v Singleton SuperValu Brunell, Fr MathewsArena, 17:00;Marble City Hawks v Maxol WIT Wildcats, O LoughlinGaels Gym, 19:00;Ambassador UCC Glanmire v IT Carlow Basketball,Mardyke Arena, 19:00;BasketballIreland Men’s Division One:   Tradehouse Central Ballincollig v LYIT Donegal,Ballincollig CS, 16:00;UL Sports Eagles v Ulster University Elks, PESS Building-UL,17:00;LIT v EJ Sligo All-Stars, Limerick IT Sportshall,18:00;Limerick Celtics v Titans, StMunchins, 18:30;Waterford Vikings v DBS Eanna, Waterford IT, 19:00;Scotts Lakers St Pauls Killarney v Abbey SealsDublin Lions, Killarney SC, 19:30;Fr Mathews v KUBS BC, Fr Mathews Arena, 19:45; A top of the table clash in the Women’s Super Leagueis in store this weekend as second placed DCU Mercy welcome league leaders,Courtyard Liffey Celtics to DCU on Sunday afternoon.center_img BasketballIreland Women’s Division One:   Limerick Celtics v Fabplus North West, St Munchins,16:30;Team Tom McCarthy’s St Mary’s v Swords Thunder, StMarys Castleisland, 18:30;Maree v Trinity Meteors, Calsanctius College, 19:30;Portlaoise Panthers v Ulster University Elks, StMarys Sports Hall, 19:30;Sunday17th February 2019   BasketballIreland Women’s Super League:   DCU Mercy v Courtyard Liffey Celtics, DCU Complex,14:30;BasketballIreland Men’s Division One:   IT Carlow Basketball v Fr Mathews, Barrow Centre-ITCarlow, 13:00;LIT v Ulster University Elks, Limerick ITSportshall, 14:00;Portlaoise Panthers v Bad Bobs Tolka Rovers, StMarys Sports Hall, 15:30;BasketballIreland Women’s Division One:   UL Huskies v Fabplus North West, UL PessBuilding-Limerick, 13:00;print WhatsApp Facebook Twitter Emaillast_img read more

Christian Eriksen strikes in stoppage time as Tottenham snatch late win

first_imgCHRISTIAN ERIKSEN kept Tottenham title hopes alive with a stoppage-time winner.The jubilation of the draw in Barcelona which sealed qualification for the last 16 of the Champions League was disappearing in a damp squib of a performance against dogged Burnley.6 Christian Eriksen scores the dramatic late winner for SpursCredit: Getty – Contributor6 Eriksen arrives to fire Spurs to victory and shatter BurnleyCredit: Reuters6 The midfielder is mobbed by Spurs team-mates after the dramatic late winnerCredit: ReutersErik Lamela, Son Heung-Min and Dele Alli had all missed late chances to snatch a winner.But second-half substitute Eriksen came up with the good again to keep Spurs on the tails of Liverpool and Manchester City.Until the late winner, the only plus point for the home team looked like being a decent first start in the senior team for Oliver Skipp, 18, who played in defensive midfield as Mauricio Pochettino shuffled his team to make up for FOUR centre backs being out with injury.Lucas Moura and Lamela failed to convert decent opportunities in the first half , the latter when Joe Hart made a good smothering save.6 Danny Rose bites the dust under a Phil Bardsley challenge in a gritty match at WembleyCredit: PA:Press AssociationMost read in footballBRO MESSAGEBobby Charlton’s touching tribute to Jack revealed as he misses funeral serviceFRESH OUTFITMicah Richards pokes fun at Roy Keane backstage at Sky Sports studiosFALL OF TROYDeeney calls Sky reporter ‘cheeky b******’ after he asks about retirementSHOTS FIREDDenis Irwin’s son trolls Liverpool fans with savage Steven Gerrard tweetPicturedC’MON THE LADSRamos’ becomes dad again as wife gives birth to FOURTH son Maximo AdrianoVideoROY MEANKeane says ‘that’s why they never win anything’ as Villa celebrate staying upHarry Kane had a good shout for a penalty turned down as Burnley frustrated the home team with their compact shape and commitment.Ashley Barnes thought he had given the visitors a shock lead just after the break, only for a combination of Toby Alderweireld and Kane to block his acrobatic effort.From then on, Spurs enjoyed most of the possession and territory yet found it hard to create clear-cut chances.Pochettino sent on Christian Eriksen with 25 minutes left but the chances were falling to others.Is this Danny Rose cross for Tottenham the worst of all time?6 Oliver Skipp made his full debut in the centre of the Tottenham midfieldCredit: AFP or licensors6 Robbie Brady attempts an overhead kick as Burnley searched for the breakthroughCredit: PA:Empics SportIn the 75th minute the ball came to Lamela just outside the six-yard box but Hart made a fine one-armed saved to keep out the low shot.Then Son dragged a shot wide from even close range with five minutes left.When Dele was unable to force in a Son cross at the far post, it seemed Burnley, who had Robbie Brady and Phil Bardsley booked for timewasting, would hold on for a point.But in the final minute, Dele and Kane combined to tee up Eriksen to complete a fine week for Tottenham.Watch all the Premier League action from Saturday 15th Decemberlast_img read more

Q & A: The Legal Aspects of the Durban Platform Text

first_imgAt the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention on Climate Change (COP-17) in Durban – “the longest COP ever” — Parties agreed to establish an Ad Hoc Working Group on a Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (AWG-DP). The AWG-DP has the mandate to develop **“a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties.”*The AWG-DP will start its work “as a matter of urgency” in the first half of 2012. It will complete it no later than 2015, with the outcome to be adopted at COP-21 and to come into effect and be implemented from 2020. The content of AGDP’s workplan will focus in particular on “enhancing mitigation ambition to identify and to explore options for a range of actions that can close the ambition gap with a view to ensuring the highest possible mitigation efforts by all Parties.”What are the legal implications of the Durban Platform text, and what could the different legal options mean for the UNFCCC? Below we go through some questions and answers:Q: Many Parties went to Durban concerned primarily about the expiration of the first commitment of the Kyoto Protocol, and the need to develop a new legally binding agreement, containing legally binding commitments for all major emitters of greenhouse gases into the future. Does the mandate of the Durban Platform ensure this outcome? Let’s start with the legal form of the agreement.A: The AWG-DP will complete its mandate if it is able to produce one of three outcomes: 1) a legally binding protocol (under Article 17 of the Convention); 2) another legal instrument (most likely an amendment of the Convention under Article 15, or a new or amended annex to the Convention, under Article 16); or 3) another “agreed outcome with legal force”. All three options must be agreed “under the Convention”.While the Durban Platform text contains a number of ambiguities, it has moved the process enough towards a new, comprehensive and legally binding agreement to have secured the agreement of the European Union (EU) to enter into a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol.Q: What is an “agreed outcome with legal force”?A: The final deal was struck with the addition of this third option and as a result of a compromise between the European Union (which was keen to see the form of a legally binding agreement as parallel in form as possible to the Kyoto Protocol) and India (which has consistently resisted calls for a new legally binding agreement). Following a sharp-elbowed “huddle” during a break in the formal negotiations, the language was endorsed from the floor by India and the EU as a third option.It’s the least clear of the three options, as it uses language that doesn’t appear in the Convention. But this option seems to be designed to allow room for the negotiations to end with an outcome that doesn’t take the form of the legal instruments expressly contemplated in the Convention (a protocol, an amendment and or an annex to the Convention), and yet is still “under the Convention”.Those countries that have resisted calls for a new legally binding agreement may promote the use of this third option to lead to an outcome that is not conventionally viewed as legally binding, such as a COP decision. To succeed they will have to convince the majority of UNFCCC parties that support the adoption of a new protocol or an amendment.Q: How does an outcome with “legal force” differ from an outcome that is “legally binding”?A: Under international law, a binding agreement or commitment represents a country’s or countries’ express consent to be bound, and its willingness to be held accountable by other parties for its compliance with its obligations. Most often through the additional step of “ratification” these agreements become binding under the domestic law of each country as well. We have discussed the merits of legally binding agreements and commitments elsewhere; see our summaries after COP-15 Copenhagen, COP-16 Cancun, and before COP-17 Durban.Out of context, many would likely interpret “legal force” as being the equivalent to “legally binding”. For example, the Convention speaks of legally binding instruments such as protocols and amendments as “entering into force” when they become binding on Parties.In the context of the Durban Platform negotiations, this choice of words seems to signal something different, and softer, than a legal instrument requiring ratification. The EU, at a press conference immediately following COP-17, expressed its view that the third option is the weakest and therefore the least desirable. It will be up to those countries supportive of this third option to convince others what an “outcome with legal force” might mean under this Convention.Q: Why did some countries resist the idea of concluding the AWG-DP process with a legally binding agreement?A: India, alongside other countries, has made the point that the form of the agreement should be decided only after its content has been agreed. Many share India’s concern that it would be unfair if developing countries with rising aggregate emissions but very low per capita emissions were to find themselves trapped under legal obligations similar to those being taking on by far richer, and historically more culpable, industrialized countries.India has also stated that it feels that COP/MOP decisions, such as the so-called “Marrakech Accords” that operationalized the Kyoto Protocol’s market mechanisms, have in practice had all the force of law, even if many consider them to be non-binding. As has been discussed previously, many lawyers and Parties to the UNFCCC have expressed the view that the UNFCCC COP does not have the authority to adopt legally binding decisions.Among industrialized countries, the United States (which signed but failed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol) has been the most resistant to commit in advance to a process leading to a legally binding instrument or protocol. The US delegation has frequently expressed the view that the process of generating the Cancun pledges was successful in securing the participation of more than 90 countries, in part because these pledges are non-binding. Also, the US Congress is notoriously reluctant to ratify international treaties.Q: How does this negotiating mandate differ from previous goals the process has set for itself, in terms of the form of the desired outcome?A: The importance of the Durban Platform text, which helps explain how long it took to negotiate, is revealed most clearly by contrasting it with the 1995 “Berlin Mandate” that guided the design of the Kyoto Protocol, and with the 2007 Bali Roadmap, the Parties’ most recent attempt to set a goal for negotiating a regime of post-2012 commitments.The Berlin Mandate limited the potential legal form of the outcome to 1) a protocol or 2) another legal instrument. More significantly, it limited the content of any outcome of the negotiation to the strengthening of developed country emission reduction commitments, and expressly excluded the introduction of any new commitments for developing countries.When adopting the Bali Roadmap, Parties were only able to set their sights on an “agreed outcome.”Durban thus represents the turning of a corner for the climate regime, in that it directs the negotiators towards a binding legally agreement (and/or one with legal force) that is applicable to the mitigation efforts of all Parties.Q: What about the content of any future legal protocol, instrument or outcome? Will the Durban Platform necessarily lead to legally binding commitments?A: The legal character of any new agreement emerging from the AWG-DP will have four dimensions: the legal form of the agreement, which we have just discussed; the legal form of commitments within that agreement; the prescriptive nature and content of these commitments; and the procedures and institutions set up under the agreement to hold its parties accountable for complying with their commitments.The AWG-DP’s mandate does not refer to the legal character of any commitments that it may contain. If the outcome itself isn’t legally binding then any commitments within it will not be legally binding. But it is also possible for a legally binding agreement to contain provisions that are softly worded, or that are so imprecise as to be, in effect, non-binding.The AWG-DP mandate does not mention commitments, but rather a “range of actions”, “efforts”, and “options and ways” that the negotiations will consider when addressing a long list of climate-related challenges, including “enhancing mitigation ambition” (emissions reduction), adaptation, finance, capacity building and technology transfer. It mentions the need for this content to be “ambitious.” It recognizes “that fulfilling the ultimate objective of the Convention will require strengthening the multilateral, rules-based regime under the Convention,” thus signaling the importance of transitioning away from the unilateral, unharmonized “pledge and review” approach of the Cancun Agreements.But the AWG-DP mandate does not reflect an explicit agreement that “actions” set out in the agreement will be legally binding. It is clear, however, from the context of the Durban negotiations that the bulk of the Convention Parties will be seeking to ensure that this next round of negotiations lead to new, legally binding commitments to reduce emissions, and that a powerful minority of Parties may continue to resist this outcome. While this will no doubt continue to be debated hotly, there seems little point in launching yet another ad hoc working group if it is to lead to the kind of unilateral pledges that Parties produced for Cancun.Finally, the AWG-DP mandate says very little about the nature of the institutions and procedures that will hold the Parties to the new regime accountable for implementing their commitments. The text refers to the workplan including “transparency of action” but much more will need to be done to ensure the post-2020 climate regime benefits from the lessons learned about the importance of compliance procedures to the effective operation of multilateral, rule-based agreements.Q: What about equity? What room does the Durban Platform allow for a legally binding agreement containing commitments that are highly differentiated between developed and developing countries?A: Any new climate change agreement will need, in its legal form, to address the principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities. As we have discussed elsewhere it is possible to bring all countries into a common legally binding platform while assigning to them highly differentiated commitments.Both the US and the EU have insisted that any new legally binding agreement would need to contain legally binding commitments for major emerging economies, while it could allow for differentiated responsibilities with regard to the content of those commitments.The AWG-DP mandate calls for the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, that the outcome of the negotiations will be applicable to all Parties, with “a view to ensuring the highest possible mitigation efforts by all Parties.” (emphasis added).Somewhat surprisingly, the mandate does not mention the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, the concept of historical responsibility, equity, or other principles frequently invoked by developing countries to ensure that the industrialized countries take the lead in the global effort to combat climate change. This leaves it largely to the AWG-DP to determine how differentiation will emerge.Q: What is the relationship between any future commitments agreed on the basis of the Durban Platform and the legally binding commitments under a Kyoto Protocol second commitment period, as well as between these future commitments and the Cancun Agreement pledges?A: The AWG-DP mandate will develop a regime that will come into effect after 2020. While the Kyoto Protocol outcome from Durban is also ambiguous, it appears the agreement for a second commitment period, which will last either five (2013-2017) or eight (2013-2020) years, will be in the form of a legally binding amendment to the Protocol.There are signs however, that the European Union and its member states will be reluctant to ratify (legally bind themselves to) this amendment until they see significant progress in the implementation of the Cancun pledges, and progress being made under the Durban Mandate.Most of the Cancun pledges run from 2012 to 2020 and the experience of reviewing the adequacy and implementation of these pledges in the coming years will undoubtedly have an influence on the design and ambition of what emerges from the Durban Platform.last_img read more