Graphene: Miracle Substance that is the Strongest, Lightest and Best Electrical Conductor Ever Known

first_imgGraphene has the potential to become a super material.  While it  doesn’t occur naturally, it has some interesting properties.  It is only a one-atom thick lattice of carbon, but it has incredible strength and electrical conductivity properties.    In fact, it is 200 times stronger than steel.  It is unsurpassed in thermal conductivity and elasticity.  It is also the lightest material ever measured.  While it is impenetrable, it is very pliable and transparent.Despite the unique set of properties, scientists have known about graphene for more than a decade but have had time trying to practically use it.  But that’s beginning to change.Scientists have found that graphene can be mixed to make a composite that when used as a photodetector can convert infrared light into electrical signals.  Graphene photodetectors have the potential to speed up computers and help reduce computer power consumption.  The material has the potential to convert light into electricity tens or hundreds of times faster than other known materials.  The material will allow faster transmission of data than fiber optic.Recent work at Columbia University and in South Korea discovered that graphene could be used to create one-atom big light bulbs.  James Hone, researcher at Columbia University, said that “the reason both [graphene and tungsten] are used is because they survive very, very high temperatures.  There are only a few metals that survive up to such high temperatures, and tungsten was one of them. However, carbon is another. Carbon was actually used in Edison’s first lightbulbs. And graphene is just a very pure crystalline form of carbon.”Researchers are investigating how graphene can be combined with fiber to create smart textiles.  Helena Alves, graphene researcher at the University of Aveiro, said that “the concept of wearable technology is emerging, but so far having fully textile-embedded transparent and flexible technology is currently non-existing. Therefore, the development of processes and engineering for the integration of graphene in textiles would give rise to a new universe of commercial applications. ”last_img read more

The northern and southern lights are different. Here’s why

first_img The northern and southern lights are different. Here’s why Pixabay By Alex FoxJan. 25, 2019 , 5:10 PMcenter_img The northern lights (above) and their lesser-known sibling the southern lights, aurora borealis and aurora australis, respectively, undulate across the skies in hazy green and sometimes red ribbons near Earth’s polar regions. The two phenomena aren’t identical, however, and now researchers think they know why.Aurorae appear as solar wind, a gust of charged particles emitted by the sun, blows across Earth’s magnetic field. Because the charged particles flow along symmetrical lines in Earth’s magnetic field linking the north and south poles, it made sense to assume the atmospheric displays in each hemisphere would mirror each other. Advances in Earth imaging technology overturned this way of thinking in 2009, when scientists observed simultaneous aurorae drifting across the poles in patterns that didn’t match up.The study examined images of 10 asymmetric aurorae taken simultaneously from both poles and related changes in the aurorae to changes in Earth’s magnetotail, a windsocklike extension of Earth’s magnetic field. The researchers found that when solar wind approaches Earth from an east-west direction, it creates uneven pressure on Earth’s magnetotail and tilts it toward the side of the planet shrouded in darkness. That tilt causes the idiosyncrasies of shape and location of the northern and southern lights, the team reports this week in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The findings could improve the prediction of solar storms—which can disrupt electricity grids, satellites, and astronauts in space, the team says. For now, though, observers can just appreciate these stunning—but distinct—light shows.last_img read more